Film: '18 Ius Soli: The Right To Be Italian'

Review of Fred Kuwornu's '18 Ius Soli: The Right to be Italian', at BAM's New Voices in Black Cinema african film and african-american film festival

On November 2011, the national soccer teams of Italy and Romania played an exhibition match. During the game, Italian hooligans (tifosi) repeatedly shouted at the top of their lungs: “Non ci sono neri italiani” (There are no black Italians). Well, aren’t there?

The statistics tell otherwise: in Italy, almost a million young men and women were born to or raised by immigrant parents, and 12.6% of babies born in the county have non-Italian parents. Unlike most neighboring countries and the US, these men and women are denied the right to acquire Italian citizenship by the ius soli law, which results in 42% of them remaining aliens when they turn 18 (the age of maturity in the EU).

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This old regulation creates an inequality of rights between young people with Italian parents and those of the 2nd generation. They suffer an array of consequences in their daily lives: from constantly needing to renew their residency, to being denied access to grants and scholarships that their Italian friends enjoy and being susceptible to deportation if they don’t carry their visas with them at all times. This legalized discrimination condemns them to the life of third-class citizens and has led them to lift up their voices in the public arena to provoke legal redress.

This is exactly the case of Fred Kuwornu, the director of the documentary Ius Soli. Il diritto di esseri italiani (Ius Soli. The Right to Be Italian), which premiered in NYC at the third edition of New Voices in Black Cinema at BAM Cinématek. Kuwornu is a producer, filmmaker, activist and entrepeneur of Ghanaian origins who made this film to denounce this incomprehensible situation in contemporary Italy, urging for a response from the political authorities and the judiciary.

Avoiding the stereotypes of victim and outcast, the documentary is organized around interviews of 18 successful young men and women of African, Asian, East European and South American descent. With the intention of breaking down stereotypes and preconceptions of their fellow citizens, we hear how these people, overcoming all kinds of obstacles, have succeed in getting degrees, starting their own businesses and, in many cases, giving their free time to volunteer at the Red Cross and various other cooperative organizations. Their dedication is paralleled by two exemplary historical accounts of excellence and inspiration: those of famous boxer Leone Iacovacci (1902-1983) and partisan fighter Giorgio Marincola (1923-1945). Using archival footage and voice-overs to narrate the lives of these Italians of African descent, the director rescues these two unknown stories from oblivion. In their own way, both Iacovacci and Marincola xperienced racism and fought against inequality, becoming models for new generations.

*Giorgio Marincola, third from left

Leone Iacovacci, born of Roman father and Congolese mother, became a professional boxer who toured the world, changing nationality to suit his interest, until he returned to Europe to win the European boxing title as an Italian and provoked the ire of the fascists, who could not bear to see a black person wearing the maglia azzura (the blue t-shirt that has represented Italy in sports since the time of the Savoy dynasty). Giorgio Marincola, born in colonial Somalia, came to Rome at the age of 10. He dedicated his short life to defending the principles of justice and freedom, following the lessons of Pilo Albertelli, a high school teacher of history and philosophy and a famous anti-fascist intellectual. His early encounter with the humanists precipitated his decision to join the partisan forces.  When asked why was he fighting for a country that shortly before had colonized his people, Marincola answered: “Homeland doesn’t mean a color on a map but freedom and justice for all the peoples of the World”. He died at the age of 20, killed by Nazi forces, but his is an indelible testimony of strength and conviction to effect change.

The lives of their contemporary counterparts might not look as legendary, but they're familiar to anybody who has had to suffer the dislocation of migration and struggle to make a living in a foreign country. The subjects have complex identities, as we come to know listening to their opinions and circumstances. The experience of each is rife with the contradictions provoked by the constant refusal of the administration to recognize their Italian citizenship, while they speak, eat and feel “Italian.” In the words of a 2nd generation Italian at the beginning of the documentary: “We are not immigrants, we don’t come from another country, we haven’t crossed borders. We have been here since the beginning of our lives”.


Photo: courtesy of Natsai Audrey Chieza

100 Women: Natsai Audrey Chieza is Changing the World One Petri Dish at a Time

Her interdisciplinary approach to biology and fashion has sparked conversation about the future of sustainability and pollution in textile manufacturing.

The bold jewel tones of OkayAfrica 100 Women honoree Natsai Audrey Chieza's silk scarves aren't the product of hazardous chemicals or silkscreen printing. Instead, they are the product of bacteria. Specifically coelicolor, a strain of bacteria found in soil that happens to excellently synthesize organic chemical compounds. Working in the trade for six years, the Zimbabwean materials designer quickly came to understand why the textile industry is one of the most polluting industries in the world. Knowing that the most harm occurs during the process of dyeing fabrics, she decided to take action.

Chieza has worked with leading brands such as Microsoft, Nissan, and Unilever to usher in a new approach to science and design. Through her creative R&D; studio Faber Futures, the design innovator uses the process of creating with bacteria to assist in moving mankind away from our fossil fuel dependency. As the biopigment expert put it [last year during her TED talk "Fashion has a pollution problem—can biology fix it?"], in the future we must make sure that we are not "mirroring the destructive legacies of the oil age."

Her interdisciplinary approach to biology and fashion has sparked spirited conversation about the future of sustainability and pollution in textiles. Here, Chieza expounds on her start, the pros and cons of creating something new and the urgency of change.

The following has been edited for length and clarity

Akinyi Ochieng for OkayAfrica: STEM and the arts are often conceptualized as separate worlds. However, in your career, you've managed to find the overlap. How did you, a materials designer, end up dabbling in biotechnology?

Natsai Audrey Chieza: I've always really wanted to work within the creative field. I used to work in architecture where I really enjoyed my education in a systems approach to designs and designing for multiple contexts. But I wanted to explore a different side of the design world, so I began exploring the skill and context of material flows, and how technology and futures fits within this framework of how we design.

For my own work and my practice, not having a scientific background made me try things based on what I understood about materials and what I understood about the interactions in which those materials existed in society. I'm interested in a political lens, an economic lens, and how textiles perform in reality. That's not necessarily the approach that a scientist would have taken. Now that's not to say that science isn't important—it's vital. But innovation can occur in that intersection.

Did you go into this thinking, "Oh, I'll figure it out. There must be a path to make this work"?

To be honest, when I started off, the field was not defined. I think I found something really interesting, which was about how biology was becoming a realm of design, and I just explored that as best as I knew how as a designer and non-scientist. It just so happened that around me there was a context that was imagined but enabled me six years later to say, "That's the industry where this work belongs" and stakeholders who give me a space to further my work in a creative and experimental. The path was never anything clear at all. I learned as I grew.

There's a phrase that is often repeated today: "You can't be what you can't see." But you have really created a niche for yourself. What are the benefits of entering an emerging space?

I think what's amazing is not having anyone or anything telling you that what you think is impossible. If you're carving a new territory then you must trust in your instinct and vision to effectively push where the work can be and where it exists. You're not asking permission to do anything. Of course the flip side of that is you have to bring people with you, and so part of you being able to do the work is convincing people that your vision has legitimacy and it's worth exploring, worth taking a risk to look outside of that box.

It's often quite challenging to figure out how to find the strength to push something that hasn't been done before. There's no precedent or rulebook to my work, but sometimes it's really nice to have a rulebook. [Laughs] However, I think it's made me a person who doesn't see challenges as obstacles that are in the way, but more as problems that can be solved. And I think that's the good thing.

Much of your work is about biopigments. What color excites you?

It's not really the colors that excite me. It's color as a cultural context that really fascinates me. I'm really interested in if a microbe is almost like this living factory that produces this pigment, and the technology can be shared and deployed with people as to how you work with it across the world, then what are the cultural interventions that can happen in South Africa versus in Argentina versus in the United Kingdom, based on this common microbe. I think that's always been what interests me the most, the context in which our materials exist. I think a really good example is indigo, and how from Japan to West Africa, indigo is just this really, really rich material, and the process and the craftsmanship that goes into it. I'm interested to see how the future ecology of making arises in response to biotechnologies across the world.

Where do you see yourself and your work evolving in the near or long term?

I'm sort of going through that growth moment where you've been working toward something and then you've arrived at that and you're like, "Right, what's next?" I think I'm fundamentally somebody that wants to use design as a discursive tool to understand how our technologies proliferate. My focus is really on the imagined life sciences and how they're going to become very much a part of all of our lived experiences, and particularly in the context of really urgent changes that are happening from a local level to a global level. From global warming and climate change to resource scarcity across regions, our response to what I think being able to design with living systems, can afford us in the future. So my work really is about understanding how to engage stakeholders across different sectors to grow a consensus around how we're going to leverage these sorts of technologies so that they can be technologies for good. That's really where this is going.

This article appears as part of OkayAfrica's 100 Women 2018—a project highlighting the impactful work done by African women across the globe. Throughout March, we will be publishing a series of profiles, videos, interviews and feature stories on these inspirational women.

Click here to see the entire list of 2018 honorees.

Maia & The Big Sky LP cover.

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Maia & the Big Sky connect with Blinky Bill for "Pawa."

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The Nairobi-based artist is now sharing the new music video for "Pawa," the album's leading track, which we're premiering here today. Directed by Chris King, the beautiful new clip sees Maia & the Big Sky taking over the TV airwaves and minds of all of those watching, freeing them from the "power" that controls them.

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Photo: Mídia NINJA

The Assassination of Marielle Franco and the Dawn of Brazil's New Civil Rights Movement

Marielle Franco was one of a new generation of black activists trying to overturn Brazil's entrenched and violent racism

The violence in Rio de Janeiro right now is akin to a war zone, with per capita death tolls resembling those from Afghanistan and Syria. Two weeks ago I traveled there for business and stayed in the relatively safe and trendy neighborhood of Santa Teresa. Each night of my stay, was abruptly awaken by long streams of gunshots and also fireworks from the nearby favela of Falett. The fireworks—as I learned from my local friends—were not a result of any celebration, rather a signal that either drugs, guns, or the police have arrived. This is the norm for many of the 763 favelas in Rio which houses nearly 25 percent of the city's population.

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