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A Quick Guide to Fufu, Africa's Staple Food

In this short guide, we list various kinds of fufu from across the continent, and offer links to recipes on how to make them as well as pairing suggestions.

The sheer joy of eating fufu is is hard to match. Stick your hand into the pounded starch and use it to scoop the best bits of hot soup from the bowl. From the time we start eating solid food as babies until our teeth fall out, most of us Africans will eat a variation of this distinctive staple almost daily.

There are hundreds of variations on fufu to fit all tastes, both personal and regional. We all have our favorites, the fufu that we think works best with a certain stew, or for a certain time of day, and we all know that one weird person who eats their's with a fork—like seriously, why?


Or maybe you've never had any experience with fufu, and want to learn more about the staple food. We've got you covered.

In this short guide, we list some of the most popular African fufu, and by "fufu" we mean any hot starch, ground or mashed, cooked over heat and formed into a rich paste, generally eaten by hand with stew or soups. And yes, this includes East and Southern African dishes, as well, though we completely understand if you don't categorize your nshima, sadza or pap as fufu.

Below we give you a guide to different types of fufu from across the continent, links to recipes on how to make them, and some pairing suggestions. Enjoy!

Cassava Fufu

Cassava is one of the primary starches used to make fufu. It's eaten in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte D' Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin and more. It's eaten in many Caribbean countries as well. Made of fermented cassava, this fufu can and should be eaten with any stew of choice: egusi, okra, peanut stew, tomato stew—whichever stew your heart desires. It's scrumptious either way.

Grated Cassava Fufu

This fufu, widely known in Nigeria as eba, is made of dried and grated cassava (garri) which gives it a grainier texture than regular cassava fufu. It is often described as having a slightly tart and sour taste. It's eaten across West Africa, in Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Togo, Benin, Sierra Leone and more, and it pairs well with most stews such as okra soup, tomato stew, egusi and more.

Pounded Yam Fufu

As its name implies, this popular fufu is made of yams, pounded down into a flour and then cooked on a stove with hot water. Cooking pounded yam down to a smooth, mashed potato-like texture requires some arm strength but it's totally worth it in the end. This fufu tastes excellent with a side of vegetable or peanut stew. Everyone should enjoy pounded yam with a side of egusi at some point in their lives.

Black Yam or Cassava Flour Fufu

Known as kokonte in Ghana and amala in Nigeria, this fufu made of black yam or cassava flour has a unique, brown or off-white appearance, and a thick, slightly gooey texture. For many, this fufu is an acquired taste. In Ghana, Togo, and Equatorial Guinea, black yam or cassava fufu is often eaten with groundnut or palm oil soup. It's popularly eaten with ewedu (corchorus leaf) stew by Yoruba people in Southern Nigeria and with edikaikong (green leaf soup) by the Efik people of Cross River State, as well as with bush mango (ogbono) soup.

Semolina Fufu

This fufu is made of durum wheat, the same used in pasta and couscous. Semolina fufu pairs well with a simple okra or red, tomato stew.

Corn Meal Flour Fufu

This East and Southern African staple, commonly known as ugali in Kenya and Tanzania, posho in Uganda, nshima in Malawi and Zambia, sadza in Zimbabwe, and pap in South Africa, is made from corn meal or millet flour. Its thick texture allows it to be cut into pieces and eaten with various stews, beans, sakuma wiki (spiced collared greens), and other relishes.

Plantain Fufu

Plantain fufu is a lighter alternative to yam and cassava-based starches. It's made with blended green plantain that thickens when stirred over a stove. It's eaten across West Africa. A variation of plantain fufu, known as matoke is widely eaten in Uganda. This fufu pairs well with peanut soup, palm oil soup, leafy vegetable stew, and tomato stew.


Oatmeal Fufu

This alternative fufu recipe, consists of blended oats cooked in boiling water and formed into a hardened paste. This type of fufu, tends to be slightly drier, so pair with a side of saucy, leafy green stew for best results.


Corn Dough and Cassava Dough Fufu

Largely known as banku, this Ghanaian fufu is made of corn and cassava dough cooked with salt and formed into a white paste. Enjoy banku with shito and fried fish or okra soup.


Rice Meal Fufu

This rice-based fufu, known as Tuwo Shinkafa in Northern Nigeria, is a sticky, mashed rice dish, shaped into balls and eaten with—you guessed it—stew, any will do, as this fufu tastes similarly to plain rice, but spicy, red chicken stew is always a tasty choice.






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Photos by David Pattinson.

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