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#NObama in South Africa, Please

The issues underlying the anti-U.S.A protests that met President Barack Obama on the South African leg of his 2013 African Tour


Story by Panashe Chigumadzi

Obama’s weekend trip to South Africa was certainly not what he might have expected when he was inaugurated in 2008. The light of the (once) shining star of the developed world was dimmed by anti-Obama and wider anti-American protests. The protests marked the resurgence of the anti-American sentiment that was briefly mopped up by the excitement surrounding the election of the U.S.'s first black President.  Obama's election shifted the conception of America from Bush-era 'Bully of The World' to a beacon of hope and progress.

But the number of the disillusioned and disgruntled has grown as Obama has distanced himself from his African connection and positioned himself firmly as an American President. Leaving the less attractive aspects of American foreign policy to come to the fore,  the luster of an "African son" becoming American president has faded for many South Africans.

The first sign of upset came when University of Johannesburg (UJ) students and lecturers protested the institution’s decision to confer an honorary law degree to the American President. While the students and lecturers cited the fact that it was “undemocratic” and against university policy to confer honorary degrees to sitting presidents, the main point of contention was alleged human rights violations by Obama. The university dismissed the objections and decided to continue with its conferment.

The next opposition call came from the Muslim Lawyer’s Association of South Africa. Pointing to the likes of U.S. drone attacks in Pakistan, they appealed to the South African Police Service (SAPS) and national director of Public Prosecutions to have Obama “investigated, charged, arrested and tried in a South African court for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide” in accordance with International Customary Law enshrined in the Rome Statute Act. This application was quickly dismissed by the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA).

By Friday morning it was the hashtags #ProtestUSA #NObama and a coordinated march from the Caledonian Stadium in Pretoria to the US Embassy in the city attended by the NObama Coalition. Along the way they chanted their grievances: “Free Palestine. Free Swaziland. Free Zimbabwe. Down Obama, down!” A large banner picturing Obama read “Meet the world’s top assassin,” another demanded “Obama stop supporting dictators in Africa. No oil here, move on.”

By the time the Obamas arrived at the Union buildings of Pretoria by helicopter, the SAPS were particularly conspicuous on the major highways and roads of Pretoria and Johannesburg. Just days before, several helicopters had been seen circling the suburbs of both cities.

At the Union building discussions with South African President Jacob Zuma he threw his weight behind the extension of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), and cautioned against the influence of China. Meanwhile, in response to the discontent registered amongst South Africans, United States Charges d’affaires Virginia E Palmer said, “We support freedom of expression and right to opinion.”

Come Saturday, Obama had accepted the honorary degree but said he would not receive it during his visit, citing too many other commitments. As part of his Young African Leaders Initiative, he held a town-hall style meeting at the UJ’s Soweto Campus where he discussed youth leadership and empowerment. The meeting recalled the glory days of first election campaign of Obama as an electric and exceptional leader, not yet blemished by unfavourable foreign policy decisions.

On his Sunday visit to Cape Town, he stopped by Robben Island, the prison where his icon Mandela was prisoner for almost three decades. Later he delivered an address at the University of Cape Town (UCT), where a group of NObama Coalition protestors could be seen close by carrying placards and protesting.

POTUS had saved the best for last. It was during this address that he announced his $7 billion Power Africa initiative. The aim of the initiative (read, carrot)? To shine “light where there’s currently been darkness.”

Interview
Image: Courtesy TIFF

Jenna Cato Bass is Capturing the Horrors of an Unhealed Nation

The film marks the South African director's third debut and stride towards making a name for herself in the international film circuit.

Ever since premiering her debut film, Love the One You Love, which won the Best Feature Film at the Jozi Festival in 2015, Jenna Cato Bass has been a name to watch on the international film festival circuit. Her 2017 feature, High Fantasy, was the first of her films to land on the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) lineup, followed by Flatland in 2019. Her latest offering, Mlungu Wam (Good Madam), debuted at TIFF in September of 2021 — marking her third time at the esteemed Canadian film event.

Often provocative, always thought-provoking, Bass' films have come to establish her as a director who looks at South Africa's youth, the lives they're living and the future that awaits them, with a nuanced, open-minded lens. For the first time in her career, Bass uses the genre of horror to dig into an enduring mark of the country's past — that of the fraught, complex relationship between madam and domestic worker, in Mlungu Wam (Good Madam). Set in Cape Town, the film follows the unusual, disturbing things that start happening when a young woman moves back in with her estranged mother, who is the longtime caretaker for a rich, white household.

Bass also co-wrote the film Tug of War (Vuta N'Kuvute), which became Tanzania's first film to be selected for TIFF this year, and she co-wrote Rafiki, which was Kenya's first film at TIFF in 2018.

She spoke to OkayAfrica about playing in a new genre and her hopes for African cinema.

Still from Bass's film Mlungu Wam Image: Courtesy TIFF


This story revolves around the relationship between a domestic worker and her 'madam.' What made you want to make a film about this subject?

When I make films, I like the concept to revolve around something that we all have in common - because, despite the many fractures in our society, these shared places exist. And in South Africa, we felt that everyone - in some way or another - has been deeply affected by domestic work and domestic workers, who are a keystone in our society's structure. Additionally, the 'maid' and 'madam' relationship is the ultimate symbol of race relations in South Africa - as well as how they haven't changed significantly, despite almost thirty years of democracy. So a domestic worker was the perfect character around which to centre a South African horror.

The genre of horror works really well to explore this subject and tell this story — when did you know it would be the genre you'd want to use?

The early stages of developing a film aren't always linear for me. I'll be thinking about a genre I'm interested in, and then parallel to that I'll have an idea for a story or a character, and later on, will realize that these pieces all fit together. In this case, I'd been wanting to make a horror film for ages, but hadn't found the right story… until I had the idea for Mlungu Wam, and I realized I was finally ready to try this genre.

What challenges did you face in making a horror?

It was my first time working in this genre, and it was intimidating because there's no saving you if you fail. We were also working on a very, very limited budget, so it wasn't possible to show as much as we'd like to - but then again, this story was all about the subjective and the unseen, so I did as much research and planning as we could, and just had to trust it would work.

Where did you film, and did that have any impact on the process at all?

We filmed in a house in Cape Town, in a gated community in the Southern Suburbs. The house and the environment had a major impact on the film - especially because we were also quarantining there for the full 7 weeks of rehearsal and shooting. The house was our set and our accommodation, so it was very intense, very claustrophobic, and very triggering for many of our team members.

How did you and co-writer Babalwa Baartman work on the story? You've included cast members in the writing process in your previous work — did you do that here too?

Mlungu Wam was made along similar lines to my first two films, Love The One You Love and High Fantasy, where we started with an outline, cast actors, then workshopped the characters collaboratively before completing the story breakdown and using improv for the dialogue. Babalwa and I had worked together using this method on a short film we made in 2019 called Sizohlala. She really understands the process, and it was a really rewarding experience exploring the story with her and our cast.

How did Kristina Ceyton, who produced the excellent acclaimed horrors The Babadook and The Nightingale, through Causeway Films, come to be involved in this film?

I had met Sam Jennings, who is also a producer with Causeway Films, several years ago at a festival. We really connected and kept in touch over the years, sharing our work, and hoping there'd be a chance to collaborate. So when we were developing Mlungu Wam, I pitched her and Kristina the concept and they were immediately supportive. It has been a massive pleasure working with them both.

Your films are known to venture into themes of identity and healing from the past — how does this film speak to that?

Mlungu Wam is definitely about this too - it's a story about three generations of women (actually four, if you include Tsidi's grandmother, who is an unseen character in the film), how they are haunted by the past and eventually refuse to remain chained any longer. Their healing is collective, linked to each other, and wouldn't be possible for them alone as individuals.

Still from Bass's film Mlungu Wam Image: Courtesy TIFF


You've been at TIFF before - how has your experience of it been this year, with it being a hybrid of virtual and in-person?

Things have been quieter and a bit harder to navigate, but the TIFF staff have done incredible work getting the festival off the ground, despite endless challenges. It has felt very surreal to be here, and a privilege - and inspiring too, that we can still get together to celebrate films, even though our world is in such a mess. We had over 200 (socially distanced) people at our last screening, and that was an amazing feeling.

Yours is one of few African films on this year's line-up - is there anything you'd like to see happen to try improve that?

Regarding African cinema, TIFF has a real range of films this year, across several sections. Compared to many other festivals, they seem really invested in supporting cinema from the continent. Of course, this could be better, but it's also an example to other festivals who claim there aren't enough African films, that this is clearly not the case.

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