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A Tribute To Nelson Mandela, The Revolutionary

Okayafrica offers a Nelson Mandela tribute to the revolutionary leader with the books he read and the speeches he made.

It goes without saying that Nelson Mandela has straddled the half century like a colossus. Born in Transkei, South Africa on July 18, 1918, Mandela rose to international prominence as part of the African National Congress (ANC) fighting the white South African government's apartheid system. From his imprisonment in 1962, to the 27 years he spent in prison for his resistance to the National Party's apartheid policies, to the 1994 ANC election victory which made him South Africa's first black president, the highlights of Mandela's biography are well-known.


But he was not always the kindly elder statesman. In A Long Walk to Freedom Mandela outlined his struggle to convince ANC leaders that it was right to include violent resistance among its tactics: "[we] had contended that for the ANC nonviolence was an inviolate principle, not a tactic to be changed as conditions warranted. I myself believed precisely the opposite: that nonviolence was a tactic that should be abandoned when it no longer worked." His commitment to the struggle for justice and an end to white supremacy in South Africa made him a treasonous traitor in the eyes of the National Party, and Western Bloc leaders like Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher dubbed him a terrorist, a fact which may well be glossed over in the coming days as today's statesmen pour out their tributes. Here, we remember Mandela, the revolutionary who, at his April 1964 speech at Rivonia, declared:

“During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

As part of this reflection on Mandela's profound political, ethical, and intellectual legacy, we've put together a slideshow of some of the authors and books he read during his formative years and as an inmate on Robben Island, where books were forbidden and reading was done in secret. Click through the slideshow above to see the texts that inspired Mandela's revolutionary passion.

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Photo by Don Paulsen/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images

Hugh Masekela's New York City Legacy

A look back at the South African legend's time in New York City and his enduring presence in the Big Apple.

In Questlove's magnificent documentary, Summer of Soul, he captures a forgotten part of Black American music history. But in telling the tale of the 1969 Harlem Cultural Festival, the longtime musician and first-time filmmaker also captures a part of lost South African music history too.

Among the line-up of blossoming all-stars who played the Harlem festival, from a 19-year-old Stevie Wonder to a transcendent Mavis Staples, was a young Hugh Masekela. 30 years old at the time, he was riding the wave of success that came from releasing Grazing in the Grass the year before. To watch Masekela in that moment on that stage is to see him at the height of his time in New York City — a firecracker musician who entertained his audiences as much as he educated them about the political situation in his home country of South Africa.

The legacy Masekela sowed in New York City during the 1960s remains in the walls of the venues where he played, and in the dust of those that are no longer standing. It's in the records he made in studios and jazz clubs, and on the Manhattan streets where he once posed with a giant stuffed zebra for an album cover. It's a legacy that still lives on in tangible form, too, in the Hugh Masekela Heritage Scholarship at the Manhattan School of Music.

The school is the place where Masekela received his education and met some of the people that would go on to be life-long bandmates and friends, from Larry Willis (who, as the story goes, Masekela convinced to give up opera for piano) to Morris Goldberg, Herbie Hancock and Stewart Levine, "his brother and musical compadre," as Mabusha Masekela, Bra Hugh's nephew says.

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